LMS Fowler/Stanier Class 6P "Royal Scot" - Gateway to the LMS

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Fowler Class 5XP/6P "Patriot"
Technical Data

Introduced : 1927 (in original form
No. Built : 71
Wheel arrangement : 4-6-0
With Fowler unable to implement his 4-6-2 "Pacific" designs, the LMS design department began to consider the possibility of a 4-6-0 design, a wheel arrangement favoured by the Great Western Railway at the time. At the end of 1926, the LMS requested the loan of one of the GWR's Castle Class locomotives (one of, if not the, most successful GWR designs) in order to run trials against existing LMS designs, and was duly granted the loan of No. 5000 "Launceston Castle".

The result of the tests was staggering; the Castle outperformed all of the LMS locomotives it faced in the trials, even on the steep Cumbrian banks. It looked like a 4-6-0 could be the answer to the LMS's locomotion problems, and the LMS approached the GWR with a view to either buying Swindon-built Castles for its own use, or obtaining the plans in order to build its own version of the locomotive.

However the GWR did not have the capacity at Swindon for building "export" Castles as well as its own, and was not willing to release the plans of the Castles to the LMS. The LMS then approached the Southern Railway for copies of the plans of its "Lord Nelson" class 4-6-0; the SR were more amenable and released the plans to the LMS. With some modifications at Derby (principally to make a 3-cylinder design, although some elements from Horwich 2-6-0's were also added), the final result was sub-contracted to the North British Locomotive Company, who were asked to produce 50 locomotives in time to implement the "Royal Scot" Express from Euston to Glasgow in 1927. This was the first LMS-built locomotive class to truly embrace the concept of locomotive names; most taking the names of army regiments.

By 1930, the success of the design led the LMS to order another 20 of the class. In 1933, the LMS sent one of the class to the United States on a publicity tour; the engine sent was nominally 6100 "Royal Scot", but was more likely to have been 6152 "The Kings Dragoon Guardsman" with an identity swap (a practice repeated later in the decade with "Princess Coronation" class nos. 6220 & 6229), 6152 having built with improvements suggested by Stanier. However, the identities were not swapped back on return and this should be taken into consideration when considering the 1944 list below, and with regard to the preserved examples (David Jenkinson presents evidence that the identities were not returned in the section "Royal Scot (?) goes to America" of "The Power of the Royal Scots").

The 71st member of the class was not originally a "Royal Scot" as such, but an experimental high pressure compound 4-6-0 initiated by Fowler in 1929, and originally given the name "Fury" and the number 6399. However, during tests, the boiler exploded, causing one fatality, and Fowler abandoned the idea. Stanier eventually had Fury rebuilt as 6170 "British Legion" using a tapered boiler instead of the original parallel boiler; a modification that would be using in the rebuilding of the class which started in the mid-1940's. The rebuilds were prompted by issues that had manifested themselves during the early years of operation, mainly due to problems that meant the engines had difficulty running for more than 6 or 7 hours continuously.

The "Royal Scots" continued to be a mainstay of the LMS fleet, right up until nationalisation; the Stanier "Princesses" were a more powerful locomotive but there were never enough built to do away with the "Royal Scot" class. The rebuilds of the class were completed by 1953, with the scrapping of the class completed by 1965
NumberName (in 1944)Original NameBuild YearBuilt By
6100(i) Royal Scot  1927North British
6101 Royal Scots Grey  1927North British
6102 Black Watch  1927North British
6103 Royal Scots Fusilier  1927North British
6104 Scottish Borderer  1927North British
6105 Cameron Highlander  1927North British
6106 Gordon Highlander  1927North British
6107 Argyll and Sutherland Highlander  1927North British
6108 Seaforth Highlander  1927North British
6109 Royal Engineer  1927North British
6110 Grenadier Guardsman  1927North British
6111 Royal Fusilier   1927North British
6112 Sherwood Forester  1927North British
6113 Cameronian   1927North British
6114 Coldstream Guardsman  1927North British
6115 Scots Guardsman  1927 North British
6116 Irish Guardsman  1927North British
6117 Welsh Guardsman  1927North British
6118 Royal Welch Fusilier   1927North British
6119 Lancashire Fusilier   1927North British
6120 Royal Inniskilling Fusilier  1927North British
6121 Highland Light Infantry, The City of Glasgow Regiment   1927North British
6122 Royal Ulster Riflemen  1927North British
6123 Royal Irish Fusilier   1927North British
6124 London Scottish  1927North British
6125 3rd Carabanier Lancashire Witch 1927North British
6126 Royal Army Service Corps Sanspareil 1927North British
6127 Old Contempibles Novelty 1927North British
6128 The Lovat Scouts Meteor 1927North British
6129 The Scottish Horse Comet 1927North British
6130 The West Yorkshire Regiment Liverpool 1927North British
6131 The Royal Warwickshire Regiment Planet 1927North British
6132 The King's Regiment Liverpool Phoenix 1927North British
6133 The Green Howards Vulcan 1927North British
6134 The Cheshire Regiment Atlas 1927North British
6135 The East Lancashire Regiment Samson 1927North British
6136 The Border Regiment Goliath 1927North British
6137 The Prince of Wales's Volunteers South Lancashire Vesta 1927North British
6138 The London Irish Riflemen Fury (until 1929) 1927North British
6139 The Welch Regiment Ajax 1927North British
6140 The King's Royal Rifle Corps Hector 1927North British
6141 The North Staffordshire Regiment Caledonian 1927North British
6142 The York and Lancaster Regiment Lion 1927North British
6143 The South Staffordshire Regiment Mail 1927North British
6144 Honourable Artillery Company Ostrich 1927North British
6145 The Duke of Wellington's Regt. (West Riding) Condor 1927North British
6146 The Rifle Brigade Jenny Lind 1927North British
6147 The Northamptonshire Regiment Courier 1927North British
6148 The Manchester Regiment Velocipede 1927North British
6149 The Middlesex Regiment Lady of the Lake 1927North British
6150 The Lifeguardsman  1930Derby
6151 The Royal Horse Guardsman  1930Derby
6152(i) The King's Dragoon Guardsman  1930Derby
6153 The Royal Dragoon  1930Derby
6154 The Hussar  1930Derby
6155 The Lancer  1930Derby
6156 The South Wales Borderer  1930Derby
6157 The Royal Artilleryman   1930Derby
6158 The Loyal Regiment  1930Derby
6159 The Royal Air Force  1930Derby
6160 Queen Victoria's Riflemen  1930Derby
6161 King's Own  1930Derby
6162 Queen's Westminster Riflemen  1930Derby
6163 Civil Service Riflemen  1930Derby
6164 The Artist's Riflemen   1930Derby
6165 The Ranger (12th London Regt.)  1930Derby
6166 London Rifle Brigade  1930Derby
6167 The Hertfordshire Regiment  1930Derby
6168 The Girl Guide  1930Derby
6169 The Boy Scout  1930Derby
6170 (ii)British Legion  1930Derby
(i) The identities of these two locomotives were switched in 1933 and never switched back.
(ii) Formerly 6399 "Fury", rebuilt by Stanier as the first of the "Rebuilt Scots" in 1935.

Two of the class survived into preservation; 6100 "Royal Scot" and 6115 "Scots Guardsman".    As of October 2017, 6100 is currently operational and main line certified, but 6115 is currently undergoing an overhaul.

6100 was originally preserved in LMS Crimson, although as a rebuild the locomotive never carried this livery in service (the livery was applied during preservation at Bressingham); the locomotive was returned to operational status in BR Green livery as 46100 in 2015 (as seen above).  6115 is currently in BR Green as 46115, although it did carry LMS Postwar Black when initially preserved.
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